The Types And Effects Of Bullying In School

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The emotional effects of bullying – in school or online – are staggering, says Maxine Mintzer, Ph.D., a child psychologist in Los Angeles.

“It’s so damaging,” she says. “It eats away at children’s self-esteem and renders them helpless.”

Its physical effects can be severe too, including depression, social anxiety, headaches and stomachaches, dislike of school and poor academic grades, the UCLA study found.

It typically starts in elementary school, peaks in middle school and wanes in high school, experts say. There are three types of bullying, according to the DOE:

Verbal: The bully says or writes mean things by:

  • Teasing
  • Name-calling
  • Making inappropriate sexual comments
  • Threatening to cause harm
Social: Also called “relational,” this bullying damages someone’s reputation or relationships. The behavior includes:

  • Purposely leaving someone out
  • Encouraging others to not be friends with someone
  • Spreading rumors about someone
  • Embarrassing someone in public

Physical: Hurting someone’s body or possessions, such as:

  • Hitting, kicking or punching
  • Tripping and pushing
  • Taking or breaking someone’s belongings

Boys are more likely than girls to be either perpetrators or victims.

With boys, bullying is often physical; girls tend to rely on social behavior, she adds.  

      What is cyber bullying? 
Even though a lot of bullying now takes place online, the results are just as painful as when it happens in person. Cyber bullying involves name-calling, sending embarrassing photos and videos, sharing private information without permission and spreading nasty rumors.

“Bullying on the Internet looks similar to what kids do face-to-face in school,” Juvonen says.

It's more often done by someone your kid probably knows. About half of the 1,454 students who experienced cyber bullying identified their schoolmates as the perpetrators; 43% said it was someone they knew only online, the UCLA researchers discovered.

Besides being physically intimidating, this bully tends to be impulsive, has low tolerance for frustration and lacks empathy for others.

Credit:Life script health detective
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